Transcripts from the article “Perspectives from 1968”
Image #1: Black College Proponents Ask Public Learn About Malcolm X:
This community and the university has a chance to create something so different, so educationally new, that the result would be felt around the world:
A college at the University of California, Santa Cruz, devoted to the black experience and named in honor of Malcolm X.
Thus spoke out William Moore, leader of the local Black Liberation Movement, last night at the Santa Cruz Area Service Center.
Proposed August 7, Moore said he has had no official response from the university.
The main discussion of the evening concerned the determination of Moore and the other black people present to name the proposed black college after the late Malcolm X.
Moore said he considered the militant Negro leader to be the greatest man of the 20th Century. “I will stick to that name to the death,” he said.
“If someone put his life on the line for another person, I would take the time to find out about such a person,” said Moore.
He recommended a number of books which will “state our case.” They were “The Autobiography of Malcolm X,” “The last Year of Malcolm X,” “Black Protest,” by Joanne Grant, and “Malcolm X Speaks.”
He urged people to read these books for the pro aspect of the Negro protest and find others with the other point of view, and then make up their minds about the college and Malcolm X.
Some 15 persons attended the meeting. Most of them were white. Moore said. “We are at the end of our rope, but we are asking for a way. You say education is the best way. Fine, but we want it now and we don’t want tokenism.”
A black college at UCSC would be a definite break-through, he said, and would show tangible results not only here but around the world.
It would be open to everybody, but black oriented, where people could learn how the black feels, how the black man thinks.
A white housewife, who asked that her name not be used, said, “If such a college would create better relations between the whites and the blacks, it would be an excellent thing.”
Moore told of his appearance before the Board of Supervisors Tuesday.
“They realized that they had no power to act, but the gentlemen had the courtesy to at least listen to me.”
But he said there has been no response from UCSC.
A white man, Bob Kress, said: “The burden of proof is not on the black people and you better know what Malcolm X’s life was like before challenging him or putting him down.”
Don Atkinson, another white man, said the problem was getting people to care about who Malcolm X was. “Most people just don’t care,” he said.
“Well, we have stated our case,” said Moore. “The books are available. Here is the last possibility. AS long as that baby in Mississippi is hung up; or one baby in a New York ghetto is hung up—I’m hung up.”
Image #2: Rafferty Opposes Black College At UCSC:
By Don Rigghetti, Sentinel Staff Writer
(Santa Cruz Sentinel)
“… racist would support such a thing,” … -orial candidate Max Rafferty said yesterday… by the local Black Liberation Movement… establish a black college at UCSC and name it after Malcolm X.
…in Santa Cruz for the kickoff dinner…campaign here, was cool and collected as he … sleeves in a stuffy motel room to face reporters.
…and appeared to tick over like a well-… machine as he answered questions with-… in fluent, often eloquent, language.
… Malcolm X as one of our more violent… advocated separatims,” Rafferty de-… one who abhors violence, I would certainly… naming anything after him.”
… establishing a black college in the first place, Rafferty, a veteran educater, said he had devoted his life to working with integrated schools and thought separate schools for the races would be stultifying.
Rafferty lashed out at his opponent, former State Controller Alan Cranston, a number of times during the interview. He wondered, for one thing, whether Cranston’s endorsement of the California table grape boycott was an indication of the kind of actions Cranston would take if elected, or whether Cranston was merely “showing his hostility to the state’s largest industry” (agriculture.)
Rafferty said the grape question was among the propositions he would like to place before Cranston in a debate. Cranston has refused to debate Rafferty on three separate occations, claiming that Rafferty used smear tactics in his primary campaign.
Rafferty retorted there is no basis fro the smear campaign charge, although Cranston has “put out some interesting fairy tales” to that effect. Instead he reported that Cranston himself was guilty of underhanded tactics in quoting Rafferty out of contest to gie Rafferty’s statements the exact opposite meaning of their intent.
“A man who would do that would stoop to anything,” Rafferty charged.
“If, indeed, I am a liar and a smear artist, his best bet would be a debate on television to show me up,” he continued. “I don’t intend to run this campaign on this (smear) level. There is too much name calling which inflames people who are all too wiling to be inflamed. I’m going to talk about the issues. I hope Mr. Cranston will join me.”
Image #3 and Image #4: Black College Backer Answers Critics:
Thursday, Aug. 29, 1968
Santa Cruz Sentinel
by Mel Baughman, Sentinel Staff Writer
Black Liberation Movement leader Bill Moore last night tried to dispel mounting confusion, opposition and misunderstanding about his proposal to develop the seventh college at UCSC as “Malcolm X College” for teaching of “the black experience.”
In angry, emotional tones, Moore responded to criticism by Dr. Max Rafferty, GOP candidate for the U.S. Senate, that “only a racist” could support such a proposal.
“Rafferty should either shut his mouth or come out in the open and debate the subject where the public can hear it. But I question whether he is man enough to have an open debate with me,” Moore said.
Moore also replied to apparent ridiculing remarks made by members of the county board of supervisors. Citing Supervisor Tom Black’s comment about a college named after Brendan Behan for “Irish derelicts,” Moore chided, “Notre Dame is an Irish school. Those people will get very uptight about that. But this is the kind of mentality we’re dealing with. These people should either put up or shut up.”
Quoting Rafferty’s remark that he had devoted his life to education, Moore said acidly, “That’s what’s wrong with education. That’s why problems exist, and why students picket to get a black curriculum. I question his (Rafferty’s) life.”
Moore refuted the notion that Malcolm X College would be “exclusively black.” Said he, “We have black students on white campuses. Why can’t we have white students at black colleges?” And he added, “If colleges can be names for whites and their heroes, can’t we name a college for Malcolm X, a hero to blacks?” He conceded Malcolm had been a racist, but stated that he changed his attitudes near the end of his life.
Moore said he continues to wait for some response from officials of the university about his proposal for an Afro-American college designed by blacks, staffed by blacks, and teaching the black experience to students of all racial backgrounds.
Moore implied that the university is afraid of the idea and said that it is a challenge “to…
Moore also asked for an open hearing before the academic senate of the university. “If they can’t do this, then what can they expect other than for black people to burn down this country?”
Some members on the audience of mixed racial origins attempted to offer suggestions for refining the plan, to point out the problems of operation inherent in the university bureaucracy, and to describe the efforts now being made to develop Afro-American or black programs of studies.
It also was suggested from the floor that Moore’s group should seek foundation support and consider another name. Mentioned was Cesar Chavez, leader of California’s three-year-old farm labor organizing strike in the San Joaquin Valley.
Moore rejected the proposals. Said he, “Educators want to dilute and distort the black experience. If they try to change this thing, black people are going to smell a sell-out. White people have told black people for centuries what they have to learn. Now it’s time for black people to tell white people what they have to learn about the black experience.”
In calmer tones, Moore declared, “I’m not trying to threaten or intimidate anyone. But if they can’t offer black people education, what can they offer? This is a golden opportunity to help black people, white people, education and society.
“There’s no argument against it, except they’re (opponents) out and out racists with a good cover story.
“This is not a new idea, but it’s a revolutionary idea because now they’re in a position to implement it.”
Image #5: Minority Studies At Santa Cruz:
San Francisco Chronicle, Thursday, Jan. 30, 1969
From Page 1:
…tion is not expected to touch on these other demands.
The Chancellor’s proposal is based on the recommendations of the campus’ Academic Senate, which was asked by McHenry to study the matter after the Movement’s demands were presented.
McHenry broadened this to include Mexican-Americans. The senate also recommended that in the interim, the campus “make a determined effort to offer more courses concerned with the history, culture and present status of minorities in America.”
“Because of the complex problems raised by this proposal, the Senate recommended that a program of intensive further study be undertaken as soon as possible.
The report of the Senate was forwarded privately to McHenry on December 4.
Six days later, McHenry asked the campus’ Boards of Studies (departments) to consider their offerings in the history, culture and present status of minorities in America with a view to increasing courses and faculty.
In response to the third recommendation, he asked the Senate’s Committee on Educational Policy to make the intensive further study. The committee declined, however, saying it had neither the time nor resources to do so, and McHenry turned the task over to the Director of Academic Planning.
In its report to McHenry, the Senate noted that there is now only one course in the four existing colleges “which could be said to be clearly “Afro – American Studies.” But it noted that many other courses deal “at least peripherally” with the problems of black Americans.
The Senate recommended that the emphasis of College Seven be changed from urban studies “to the study of minorities in the United States, with an initial primary focus on the black minority.”
The Senate warned that it will not be easy to set up new courses because “in terms of time and money we are in a relatively weak position to compete for the small number of first rate people available.”
“In addition,” the Senate warned, “we feel it is imperative that we avoid the panic with which some institutions have reacted to (such) requests or demands…”
Cops Clear Sather Gate
From Page 1:
…police also entered the building, checking out a fire report, which proved groundless. The auditorium in the building was destroyed by fire last week.
At the end of the hour-long strike meeting, the students poured through Sather Gate in a well-organized line. With their ranks swelled by 600 other supporters, the group serpentined for an hour in the Sproul Mall area.
Police made repeated sweeps on on-lookers, who regrouped almost as soon as they were moved.
Later, the bulk of the marchers assembled in Pauley Ballroom of the Student Union. The strikers agreed to demand that Chancellor Roger Heyns cancel all classes today and tomorrow for a convocation on the demands of the Third World Liberation Front.
Strike leaders vowed to resume picketing and 9 a.m. today is Heyns was unwilling to go along with the demand.
The Third World group initiated the student strike eight days ago in its bid for an autonomous college for minority students, in addition to expanded admissions and increased financial and academic aid for minorities.
Campus officials said yesterday the only damage during the day was two broken windows in Dwinelle Hall.
Dean of Students Arleigh Williams said the names of many students participation in a strike demonstration Tuesday had been taken and his office was investigating the possibility of disciplinary action.
In what could be a temporary set-back to Chancellor Heyns’ efforts to get a new Afro-American studies department organized, David Blackwell, professor of statistics and a Negro, submitted his resignation as chairman of the committee implementing the department. His reason for doing so was not immediately known.